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  • f

  • fine-structure constant
    See alpha, , α.  - Read More
  • Free Will Theorem
    Do quantum particles have free will? Can they make choices? Some physicists have considered this question seriously. But(...) - Read More
  • frequency
    Frequency is the number of repeated motions in a period of time. These motions can be up and down, like a hammer, or back(...) - Read More
  • frequency and wavelength
    Frequency and wavelength are both properties of waves. They are closely related, so this article discusses the two(...) - Read More
  • function
    The term “function” is important in the field of quantum mechanics because is it the basis of the key term “wave function.”(...) - Read More
  • i

  • i
    The letter i is the symbol for the square root of -1. In other words i = √-1. The symbol i often appears in the equations of(...) - Read More
  • imaginary number
    An imaginary number is one that includes the square root of -1, written √(-1). While one might think that such a number(...) - Read More
  • ion
    An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses an electron. An atom which has lost one or more electrons has a positive(...) - Read More
  • ionize
    To ionize is to convert a substance from atomic or molecular form to ions.

    An ion is a type of atom that has an imbalance(...) - Read More

  • isotope
    Isotopes are a special kind of atom. Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are isotopes of(...) - Read More
  • j

  • Joule
    A Joule is a unit for measuring energy. It's the amount of energy needed to lift a medium tomato one meter off the surface(...) - Read More
  • l

  • Law of Conservation of Energy
    The Law of Conservation of Energy says that the amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant. Energy cannot be(...) - Read More
  • Law of Conservation of Matter
    The Law of Conservation of Matter was abandoned as inaccurate by physicists early in the 1900’s. For more information, see(...) - Read More
  • linear momentum
    Linear momentum is the oomph something has due to having mass that’s in motion. If a football player were to ram into a(...) - Read More
  • lines of force
    “Lines of force” can best be explained with an illustration. The photo shows the lines of magnetic force created with a(...) - Read More
  • local realism
    [This article is under construction.]

    Local realism is the principle that: 1) The cause of a physical change must be(...) - Read More

  • logical
    Logical reasoning is reasoning that draws conclusions based on correct understanding of relationships. Here are examples of(...) - Read More
  • m

  • magnetic moment
    The magnetic moment is the strength of the response of a piece of metal to a magnetic field. It is a measure of the degree(...) - Read More
  • magnetic moment of the electron
    The magnetic moment of an electron is symbolized as g and is called the “g-factor.”

    The magnetic moment is the degree to(...) - Read More

  • mathematical constant
    Pi and e are examples of mathematical constants. A mathematical constant has the same value no matter which mathematical(...) - Read More